Паранс революция

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Паранс революция ялъуни КӀудияб паранс революция (пар. Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) букӀана Франсиялда радикалиял сиясиял ва жамгӀиял трансформациязул период, жибги байбихьараб 1789 соналъул Генералиял штатаздаса ва лӀугьӀараб 1799 соналъул новембералда Паранс консулат гӀуцӀигун. Гьелъул гӀемерисел идеяби рикӀкӀуна либералияб демократиялъул фундаменталиял принципаллъун,[1] liberté, égalité, fraternité (эркнелъи, ращалъи, вацлъи) гӀадал лозунгал раккана цогидал революцияздаги, 1917 соналъул гӀурус революция гӀадал,[2] ва гьез гъира базабулеб букӀана лагълъи хвезабиялъе ва рищиязе ихтияразе гӀоло гьарулел рукӀарал кампаниязе.[3] Гьеб революциялдалъун рижарал къиматал ва институлал жакъа къоязги руго бетӀерлъулел паранс сиясаталда.[4]

Революциялъул гӀиллабилъун, гӀаммаб пикруялда рекъон, ккола жамгӀиял, сиясиял ва экономикиял факторал, жал рорхизе кӀолеб хӀалалда букӀараб режим батичӀел.1789 соналъул маялда гӀатӀид тӀиритӀарал жамгӀиял балагьаз рачана Генералиял эстатал ахӀиялде, жал юналда Миллияб ассамблеялде хисизаруарал. Давамлъулел рукӀарал гӀадлу хвеял ахирлъана 14 юналда Бастилиялде гьужумалдалъун, гьелъ бачана Ассамблеялъ радикалиял тадбирал гьабиялде, гьезда гъорлӀ феодализм хвезаби, Франсиялда католикияб килисаялда тӀад пачалихъияб контрол билӀинаби ва рищиязул ихтиярал гӀатӀид гьари.

Хадусеб лъабго сон букӀана гъорлӀ босун сиясияб контролалъе гӀоло унеб къеркьеялъулӀ, жиндир ватӀанчилъиял гъалмагъираз ва экономикияб депрессиялъ хӀалбиххизабураб. Австрия, КӀудияб Британия ва Пруссия гӀадал къватӀисел пачалихъаз гьабулеб букӀараб дандехӀалтӀиялъ бачана 1792 соналъул априлалда паранс революциониял рагъал байбихьиялде. XVI Людовикидаса ракӀбуссиндал, 1792 соналъул 22 септембералда гӀуцӀана ТӀоцебессеб Паранс республика ва гьелдаса хадув, 1793 соналъул январалда, Людовик чӀвазе къотӀана. Юналда Парижаджа ккараб дандерахъиналъ Миллияб ассамблеялда бетӀерлъи ккун рукӀарал жирондинал хисана Максимилиан Робеспьерил нухмалъиялда гъоркь бугеб ЖамгӀияб хӀинкъибукӀунгутӀияб комитеталдалъун.

Гьеб сабаблъана контер-ревоолюционерал тӀагӀинариялъе хӀалбихьи гӀадин терроралъул къиралат лъеялъе; 1794 соналъул юлалда гьеб лӀугӀараб заманалде Парижалда ва провинциязда чӀвазе къотӀана 16 600-ялдаса цӀикӀкӀун чи. Жиндирго къватӀисел тушбабигун гуребги, Республика дандчӀвана роялистазул гӀадинго якобиназулги жанисеб оппозициягун, ва гьеб хӀинкъи нахъчӀвазейин хӀакимлъуде бачӀана Паранс директория 1795 новембералда. Рагъулал бергьенлъаби рукӀаниги, жидер гӀемерисел Наполеон Бонапартица ккурал, сиясиял дандеккунгутӀабазул ва экономикияб стангнациялъул хӀасилалда 1799 соналъул новембералда Директория хисана Консулаталъ. ГӀемерисеб гьебги рикӀкӀуна революционияб периодалъул ахирлъун.

ГӀиллаби[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Хераб режималъул кризис[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Конституционияб монархия (юл 1789 — септембер 1789)[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

ТӀоцебесеб Республика[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Директория (1975–1799)[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Паранс революциониял рагъал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Франсиялъул колониалияб сиясат[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Медиа ва симболизм[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Руччабазул рол[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Экономикияб сиясат[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Халат-болжалаб асар[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Тариххъвай[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Ралагье гьединго[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Баянкьелал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

МугъчӀваял[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  1. Livesey 2001, p. 19.
  2. Shlapentokh 1996, pp. 61–76.
  3. Desan, Hunt & Nelson 2013, pp. 3,8,10.
  4. Fehér 1990, pp. 117–130.

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  • (2003) «The Flight to Varennes and the Coming of the Terror». Historical Reflections / Réflexions Historiques 29 (3): 469–493.
  • Tackett, Timothy (2004). When the King Took Flight. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01642-2.
  • (2011) «Rumor and Revolution: The Case of the September Massacres». French History and Civilization 4.
  • Thompson, J.M. (1959). The French Revolution. Basil Blackwell.
  • Thompson, J.M. (1952). Robespierre and the French Revolution. The English Universities Press. ISBN 978-0340083697.
  • (1983) «Food Entitlement, Famine, and Conflict». The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 14 (2): 333–349. doi:10.2307/203708.
  • Tombs, Robert; Tombs, Isabelle (2007). That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4000-4024-7.
  • (1988) «The Abolition of the Guilds during the French Revolution». French Historical Studies 15 (4): 704–717. doi:10.2307/286554.
  • Wasson, Ellis (2009). A History of Modern Britain: 1714 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-3935-9.
  • (1989) «Tontines, Public Finance, and Revolution in France and England, 1688–1789». The Journal of Economic History 49 (1): 95–124. doi:10.1017/S002205070000735X.
  • (1995) «The French Revolution and the Politics of Government Finance, 1770–1815». The Journal of Economic History 55 (2): 227–255. doi:10.1017/S0022050700041048.
  • Woronoff, Denis (1984). The Thermidorean regime and the directory: 1794–1799. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-28917-7.

Библиография[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

Халип:See also

Ингилис мацӀалда:

ЦӀех-рех ва баянал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Andress, David, ed. The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 2015). excerpt, 714 pp; 37 articles by experts
  • Aulard, François-Alphonse. The French Revolution, a Political History, 1789–1804 (4 vol. 1910); famous classic; volume 1 1789–1792 online; Volume 2 1792–95 online
  • Azurmendi, Joxe (1997). The democrats and the violent. Mirande's critique of the French Revolution. Philosophical viewpoint. (Original: Demokratak eta biolentoak, Donostia: Elkar ISBN 978-84-7917-744-7).
  • Ballard, Richard. A New Dictionary of the French Revolution (2011) excerpt and text search
  • Bosher, J.F. The French Revolution (1989) 365 pp
  • Davies, Peter. The French Revolution: A Beginner's Guide (2009), 192 pp
  • Gershoy, Leo. The French Revolution and Napoleon (1945) 585 pp
  • Gershoy, Leo. The Era of the French Revolution, 1789–1799 (1957), brief summary with some primary sources
  • Gottschalk, Louis R. The Era of the French Revolution (1929), cover 1780s to 1815
  • Hanson, Paul R. The A to Z of the French Revolution (2013)
    • Hanson, Paul R. Historical dictionary of the French Revolution (2015) online
  • Jaurès, Jean (1903). A Socialist History of the French Revolution (2015 ed.). Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-3500-1.; inspiration for Soboul and Lefebvre, one of the most important accounts of the Revolution in terms of shaping perspectives;
  • Jones, Colin. The Longman Companion to the French Revolution (1989)
  • Jones, Colin. The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (2002) excerpt and text search
  • McPhee, Peter, ed. (2012). A Companion to the French Revolution. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-31641-2.
  • Madelin, Louis. The French Revolution (1916); textbook by leading French scholar. online
  • Paxton, John. Companion to the French Revolution (1987), 234 pp; hundreds of short entries.
  • Popkin, Jeremy D. A Short History of the French Revolution (5th ed. 2009) 176 pp
  • Popkin, Jeremy D (1990). «The Press and the French Revolution after Two Hundred Years». French Historical Studies 16 (3): 664–683. doi:10.2307/286493.
  • Scott, Samuel F. and Barry Rothaus, eds. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution, 1789–1799 (2 vol 1984), short essays by scholars vol. 1 online; vol 2 online
  • Sutherland, D.M.G. France 1789–1815. Revolution and Counter-Revolution (2nd ed. 2003, 430 pp excerpts and online search from Amazon.com

Европияб ва атлантикияб тарих[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Amann, Peter H., ed. The eighteenth-century revolution: French or Western? (Heath, 1963) readings from historians
  • Brinton, Crane. A Decade of Revolution 1789–1799 (1934) the Revolution in European context
  • Desan, Suzanne, et al. eds. The French Revolution in Global Perspective (2013)
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. ed. The Encyclopedia of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History (ABC-CLIO: 3 vol 2006)
  • Goodwin, A., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 8: The American and French Revolutions, 1763–93 (1965), 764 pp
  • Palmer, R.R. "The World Revolution of the West: 1763–1801," Political Science Quarterly (1954) 69#1 pp. 1–14 Халип:JSTOR
  • Palmer, Robert R. The Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760–1800. (2 vol 1959), highly influential comparative history; vol 1 online
  • Rude, George F. and Harvey J. Kaye. Revolutionary Europe, 1783–1815 (2000), scholarly survey excerpt and text search

Сиясат ва рагъал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Andress, David. The terror: Civil war in the French revolution (2006).
  • ed. Baker, Keith M. The French Revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture (Oxford, 1987–94) vol 1: The Political Culture of the Old Regime, ed. K.M. Baker (1987); vol. 2: The Political Culture of the French Revolution, ed. C. Lucas (1988); vol. 3: The Transformation of Political Culture, 1789–1848, eds. F. Furet & M. Ozouf (1989); vol. 4: The Terror, ed. K.M. Baker (1994). excerpt and text search vol 4
  • Blanning, T.C.W. The French Revolutionary Wars 1787–1802 (1996).
  • Desan, Suzanne. "Internationalizing the French Revolution," French Politics, Culture & Society (2011) 29#2 pp. 137–60.
  • Doyle, William. Origins of the French Revolution (3rd ed. 1999) online edition
  • Englund, Steven. Napoleon: A Political Life. (2004). 575 pp; emphasis on politics excerpt and text search
  • Fremont-Barnes, Gregory. The French Revolutionary Wars (2013), 96 pp; excerpt and text search
  • Griffith, Paddy. The Art of War of Revolutionary France 1789–1802, (1998); 304 pp; excerpt and text search
  • Hardman, John. Louis XVI: The Silent King (2nd ed. 2016) 500 pp; much expanded new edition; now the standard scholarly biography; (1st ed. 1994) 224; older scholarly biography
  • Schroeder, Paul. The Transformation of European Politics, 1763–1848. 1996; Thorough coverage of diplomatic history; hostile to Napoleon; online edition
  • Wahnich, Sophie (2016). In Defence of the Terror: Liberty or Death in the French Revolution (Reprint ed.). Verso. ISBN 978-1-78478-202-3.

Экономика ва жамгӀият[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Anderson, James Maxwell. Daily life during the French Revolution (2007)
  • Andress, David. French Society in Revolution, 1789–1799 (1999)
  • Kennedy, Emmet. A Cultural History of the French Revolution (1989)
  • McPhee, Peter. "The French Revolution, Peasants, and Capitalism," American Historical Review (1989) 94#5 pp. 1265–80 Халип:JSTOR
  • Tackett, Timothy, "The French Revolution and religion to 1794," and Suzanne Desan, "The French Revolution and religion, 1795–1815," in Stewart J. Brown and Timothy Tackett, eds. The Cambridge History of Christianity vol. 7 (Cambridge UP, 2006).

Руччаби[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Dalton, Susan. "Gender and the Shifting Ground of Revolutionary Politics: The Case of Madame Roland." Canadian journal of history (2001) 36#2
  • Godineau, Dominique. The Women of Paris and Their French Revolution (1998) 440 pp 1998
  • Hufton, Olwen. "Women in Revolution 1789–1796" Past & Present (1971) No. 53 pp. 90–108 Халип:JSTOR
  • Hufton, Olwen. "In Search of Counter-Revolutionary Women." The French Revolution: Recent debates and New Controversies Ed. Gary Kates. (1998) pp. 302–36
  • Kelly, Linda. Women of the French Revolution (1987) 192 pp. biographical portraits or prominent writers and activists
  • Landes, Joan B. Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Cornell University Press, 1988) excerpt and text search
  • Melzer, Sara E., and Leslie W. Rabine, eds. Rebel daughters: women and the French Revolution (Oxford University Press, 1992)
  • Proctor, Candice E. Women, Equality, and the French Revolution (Greenwood Press, 1990) online
  • Roessler, Shirley Elson. Out of the Shadows: Women and Politics in the French Revolution, 1789–95 (Peter Lang, 1998) online

Тариххъвай ва мемуарал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Andress, David. "Interpreting the French Revolution," Teaching History (2013), Issue 150, pp. 28–29, very short summary
  • Censer, Jack R. "Amalgamating the Social in the French Revolution." Journal of Social History 2003 37(1): 145–50. online
  • Cox, Marvin R. The Place of the French Revolution in History (1997) 288 pp
  • Desan, Suzanne. "What's after Political Culture? Recent French Revolutionary Historiography," French Historical Studies (2000) 23#1 pp. 163–96.
  • Furet, François and Mona Ozouf, eds. A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution (1989), 1120 pp; long essays by scholars; strong on history of ideas and historiography (esp pp. 881–1034 excerpt and text search
  • Furet, François. Interpreting the French revolution (1981).
  • Germani, Ian, and Robin Swayles. Symbols, myths and images of the French Revolution. University of Regina Publications. 1998. ISBN 978-0-88977-108-6
  • Geyl, Pieter. Napoleon for and Against (1949), 477 pp; summarizes views of major historians on controversial issues
  • Hanson, Paul R. Contesting the French Revolution (2009). 248 pp.
  • Kafker, Frank A. and James M. Laux, eds. The French Revolution: Conflicting Interpretations (5th ed. 2002), articles by scholars
  • Kaplan, Steven Laurence. Farewell, Revolution: The Historians' Feud, France, 1789/1989 (1996), focus on historians excerpt and text search
  • Kaplan, Steven Laurence. Farewell, Revolution: Disputed Legacies, France, 1789/1989 (1995); focus on bitter debates re 200th anniversary excerpt and text search
  • Kates, Gary, ed. The French Revolution: Recent Debates and New Controversies (2nd ed. 2005) excerpt and text search
  • Lewis, Gwynne. The French Revolution: Rethinking the Debate (1993) online; 142 pp.
  • McPhee, Peter, ed. (2012). A Companion to the French Revolution. Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-31641-2.; 540 pp; 30 essays by experts; emphasis on historiography and memory
  • Reichardt, Rolf: The French Revolution as a European Media Event, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2010, retrieved: 17 December 2012.
  • Ross, Steven T., ed. The French Revolution: conflict or continuity? (1971) 131 pp; excerpt from historians table of contents

Тарихиял иццал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

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Цересел
Ancien Régime (Басрияб низам)
Паранс революция
1789–1792
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ТӀоцебесеб Паранс Республика

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