ГӀарац (валюта)

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ГӀарац — бокьараб жо яги жиндир хал гьабизе кӀолеб хъвай, гӀемерисеб жибги къабул гьабураб къайиялъухъ ва гьабураб хӀалтӀухъ мухьлъун ва магъало гӀадал налъаби рецӀизе конкретияб пачалихъалда яги социалиябгин экономикияб контексталда.[1][2][3] ГӀарацалъул аслиял функциял ратӀарахъула: хис-басалъул алат, хӀисаб-суалалъул цвел, багьа цӀуниялъул алат ва цо-цо налъи бецӀи нахъбахъиялъул стандарт гӀадин.[4][5] Гьел функциял тӀуразе кӀолел бокьарал жал рикӀкӀине бегьула гӀарац хӀисабалда.

МугъчӀваял[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  1. Mishkin, Frederic S. (2007). The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets (Alternate ed.). Boston: Addison Wesley. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-321-42177-7.
  2. What Is Money? By John N. Smithin. Retrieved July-17-09.
  3. money : The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics.
  4. Mankiw, N. Gregory (2007). "2". Macroeconomics (6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers. pp. 22–32. ISBN 978-0-7167-6213-3.
  5. T.H. Greco. Money: Understanding and Creating Alternatives to Legal Tender, White River Junction, Vt: Chelsea Green Publishing (2001). ISBN 1-890132-37-3

ТӀадеги цӀалиялъе[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • Chown, John F. A History of Money: from AD 800 (Psychology Press, 1994).
  • Davies, Glyn, and Duncan Connors. A History of Money (4th ed. U of Wales Press, 2016) excerpt .
  • Keen, Steve (February 2015). "What Is Money and How Is It Created?" argues, "Banks create money by issuing a loan to a borrower; they record the loan as an asset, and the money they deposit in the borrower’s account as a liability. This, in one way, is no different to the way the Federal Reserve creates money ... money is simply a third party’s promise to pay which we accept as full payment in exchange for goods. The two main third parties whose promises we accept are the government and the banks ... money ... is not backed by anything physical, and instead relies on trust. Of course, that trust can be abused ... we continue to ignore the main game: what the banks do (for good and for ill) that really drives the economy." Forbes
  • Kuroda, Akinobu. A Global History of Money (Routledge, 2020). excerpt
  • Weatherford, Jack. The history of money (2009). by a cultural anthropologist. excerpt

КъватӀисел регӀелал[хисизабизе | код хисизабизе]

  • "Money", BBC Radio 4 discussion with Niall Ferguson, Richard J. Evans and Jane Humphries (In Our Time, Mar. 1, 2001)

Халип:Means of Exchange Халип:Economics